Graphic Arts Industry Glossary
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Saddle stitch - A method of binding signatures by opening at the center of the fold and fastening together by means of wire staples through the fold line. The folded signatures ride on a saddle line while this type of work is being done.

Saddle wire - In binding, to fasten a booklet by wiring it through the middle fold of the sheets.

Safelight - In photography, the special darkroom lamp used for illumination without fogging sensitize materials.

Saturation - The impregnation of paperboard with a liquid to the point of non-absorption.

Sawing block - Blocks cut with circular saw in diemaking.

SBS - Solid Bleached Sulfate.

Scale - To identify the percent by which images should be enlarged or reduced.

Scaling - Determining the proper size of an image to be reduced or enlarged.

Scaling wheel - Alternate term for Proportional scale.

Scanner - Device used to make color separations, halftones, duo tones and tri tones. Also a device used to scan art, pictures or drawings in desktop publishing.

Score - A channel pressed (or embossed) into a paper or paper board creating a hinge, allowing it to fold more easily. Scoring generally increases the strength of the folded material by compressing the paper fibers and reducing the stretch.

Scoring - Creasing or bending line that assists subsequent usage. Scoring is also a term used to describe when one or more materials are slit or cut through to assist in the tape application.

Screen - See contact screen.

Screen angles - In color reproduction, angles at which the halftone screens are placed with relation to one another, to avoid undesirable moiré patterns. A set of angles often used is: black 45°, magenta 75°, yellow 90°, cyan 105°.

Screen density - Amount of ink, expressed as percent of coverage, that a specific screen allows to print.

Screen line number - The number of ruled lines per inch on the halftone screen (133 and 150 are common examples).

Screen Printing - A printing process where a squeegee is used to force thick, opaque ink through a fine fabric mesh (the screen) onto the surface to be printed. The image is created by applying an emulsion or stencil to the screen to block out the negative (non-printing) areas.

Screen ruling - The number of rows or lines of dots per inch in a screen for tint or halftone.

Screen tint - Area of image printed with dots so ink coverage is less than 100% and simulates shading or a lighter color.

Screen value - The percentage of printing area is referred to as a certain percent tint (ex. 30% tint).

Screen - Piece of film with dots of uniform density, used to make plates that will print screen tints. See also Halftone screen.

Screened print - In photography, a print with a halftone screen made from a halftone negative or by diffusion transfer.

Scribe - To mark rule at the area where it will be notched or bent. To mark.

Scum - In offset lithography, a film of ink printing in the non-image areas of a plate where it should not print.

Section - A group of leaves of a volume, suitable for sewing, usually about 1/2" thick.

Self Cover - A cover of the same paper as inside text pages.

Self Wound or Single Wound - Often used in reference to pressure-sensitive tapes when comparing them to linered tapes. Each subsequent layer has the exposed adhesive in direct contact with the backing of the previous layer.

Self-cover - Publication made entirely from the same paper so that cover is printed simultaneously with inside pages.

Self-mailer - Printed piece designed to be mailed without an envelope.

Semi-chemical pulp - A combination of chemical and mechanical pulping with properties similar to chemical pulp.

Separation - Alternate term for Color separation.

Serif - The short cross-lines at the ends of the main strokes of many letters in some bold faces.

Serrated rule - A type of cutting rule with pointed teeth on the top that is used in rotary cutting dies for corrugated.

Set - One each of every individual tab in a job or group.

Set-off - In presswork, when the ink of a printed sheet rubs off or marks the next sheet as it is being delivered. Also called offset.

Set-up - Make ready.

Sew - To use thread to fasten signatures together at the spine of a book.

Shade - The chroma, hue, and grey value when comparing of substances of the same color.

Shadow - The darkest parts in a photograph, represented in a halftone by the largest dots.

Sharp - Characteristic of an image in clear focus.

Sharpen - To decrease in strength, as when halftone dots become smaller; opposite of "thicken" or "dot spread".

Shear - The work that results when two contiguous parts slide past each other, in a direction parallel to their plane of contact.

Shear Adhesion - The level of bond strength a PSA has to a substrate when shear force or stress is applied. For example, a PSA used to hang a picture on a wall should have good shear adhesion.

Sheen - Shininess at grazing angles.

Sheeter - Device to cut roll of paper into sheets.

Sheetfed press - Press that prints sheets of paper.

Sheetwise - To print one side of a sheet of paper with one form or plate, then turn the sheet over and print the other side with another form using the same gripper and side guide.

Shelf life - The resistance to deterioration by oxygen and ozone in the air, by heat and light or by internal chemical action. More specifically, the length of time that a container or a material therein, will remain in an acceptable condition under specified conditions or storage.

Shell cup - A device for measuring viscosity.

Shim - A thin strip used as filler.

Shimming - To fill a void with shims.

Shim-stock - Thin material used for shimming.

Shingling - Allowance made during pasteup or stripping to compensate for creep.

Short grain - Alternate term for Grain abort (paper).

Short ink - An ink that is buttery and does not flow freely.

Show-through - In printing, the undesirable condition which the printing on the reverse side of a sheet can be seen through the sheet under normal lighting conditions.

Shrink - To decrease image in strength during contacting, as when halftone dots become smaller; opposite of dot spread. A diffusion sheet is placed between light source and film to sharpen or squeeze the image during exposure. This technique is commonly used in the creation of a trap.

Shrink wrap - Method of tightly wrapping packages or products in plastic film.

Shuttle feed - A type of feeding system.

Side guides - Adjustable mechanism on register unit of a press that properly positions a sheet side to side

Side stitch - To bind by stapling through sheets along one edge.

Side-guide - On sheetfed presses, a guide on the feed board to position the sheet sideways as it feeds onto the front guides before entering the impression cylinder.

Signatures - In printing, any single press sheet on which multiple page have been imposed which, when folded and cut, forms a group of pages. Most books and other publications are printed as group of signatures, the multiple imposition allowing a significant reduction in the number of independent pressruns required to print all pages.

Silhouette halftone - A halftone with all of the background removed.

Silicone - A synthetic lubricant sometimes applied to steel rule to reduce friction in cutting.

Silk Screen - See Screen Printing.

Simplex Box - A box that folds down from the ends of the box but offers a rigid box look.

Sizing - The treatment of paper which gives it resistance to the penetration of liquids (particularly water) or vapors.

Sizing, internal - A process by which materials are added to a pulp slurry in order to enhance its resistance to liquid penetration.

Sizing, surface - A process by which materials are added to the surface of formed paper or paperboard to enhance the surface properties.

Skid - A pallet used for a pile of cut sheets.

Sliding head press - One of many type of presses.

Slip - The tendency of two adjacent surfaces to slide.

Slip sheet - Blank sheet placed between newly-made printed products to prevent setoff or scuffing during handling and shipping.

Slit score - Used in corrugated to describe a cut-score.

Slit - To cut paper using a disk or wheel.

Slitting - Cutting printed sheets or webs into two or more sections by means of cutting wheels on a press or folder.

Slot - The paper removed at the corner of a box to permit the boxes to fold. In a die, the rule that produces the slot.

Slow film - Film that requires a relatively large amount of light to record an image.

Sludge - Solids removed in the clarifying process of a pulp or paper mill.

Slug - In composition, a one-piece line of type. Also, a strip of metal, usually 6 points, used for spacing between lines.

Slur - Elongation or dot gain caused by mechanical distortion in the printing process.

Small caps - An alphabet of SMALL CAPITAL LETTERS available in most roman type faces approximately the size of the lower case letters. Used in combination with larger capital letters.

Small-format camera - Camera making negatives 35mm or smaller.

Smoothness - The surface property of a material determined by its variations from an ideal flat or plane surface. It can be measured as a function of the air flow between the material and a plane surface.

Smyth sewn - One pattern of sewn binding.

Snap - The combined effect of color intensity, holdout, and gloss resulting in brilliance or vividness.

Soft bind - Alternate term for Perfect bind.

Soft cover - Bound without a case; usually perfect bound, but also sewn and bound with a paper cover.

Soft dot - In photography, a dot is called "soft" when the halation or fringe around the dot is excessive and almost equals the area of the dot itself. Conversely, when the fringe is so slight as to be barely noticeable and the dot is very sharp, it is called "hard".

Soft ink - Descriptive of the consistency of paste inks.

Soft proof - See hard proof.

Software - See program.

Solid - Any area of the sheet that has received 100% ink coverage

Solvent - The medium used to dissolve a substance.

Solvent coating - A type of coating, applied in liquid form, which dries by evaporation.

SPC - Acronym for Statistical Process Control.

Spec sheet - Short for sheet on which specifications are written.

Special effects - General term for reproduction of photographs using techniques such as line conversion and posterization.

Specialty advertising - Printed advertising on products such as mugs, matchbooks, jewelry, and pencils.

Specialty papers - Paper distributor term for carbonless, pressure-sensitive, synthetic, and other papers made for special applications.

Specialty printer - Printer specializing in making a particular product.

Specifications - Complete and precise descriptions of paper, ink, binding, quantity, and other features of a printing job.

Spectrum - The complete range of colors in the rainbow, from short wavelengths (blue) to long wavelengths (red).

Spine - The binding edge of a book or publication. See Backbone

Spiral bind - To bind using a spiral of wire or plastic looped through holes.

Spiral binding - A book bound with wires in spiral form inserted through holes punched along the binding side.

Spiral Wire Binding - A means of mechanical binding in which the pages are bound together by means of a wire or plastic coil threaded into drilled or punched holes along the binding edge of the pages.

Spirit duplicating - Method of printing that uses a chemical fluid to dissolve a trace of carbon from the plate to make each impression.

Split - To cut single signature issues greater than 6/8" through the fold, before oversewing or fan gluing.

Split fountain - Putting more than one ink in a printing fountain to achieve special color affects.

Spoilage - Paper, film, plates or other material lost in preliminary, printing and binding operations through damage while mechanically adjusting equipment or a waste through production of imperfect copies or reproduction.

Spot Color - A single color that does not need to be combined with any other color to be printed.

Spot UV - The application of UV coating to a portion of the paper surface, generally to achieve a contrast between a gloss, matte or uncoated surface. (Also see UV Coating.)

Spot Varnish - The application of varnish to a portion of the paper surface, generally to achieve a contrast between a gloss, matte or uncoated surface. (Also see Varnish.)

Spread - To increase an image in strength during contacting, as when half-tone dots become larger; opposite of dot shrink. A diffusion sheet is placed between light source and film to halate the image during exposure. This technique is commonly used in the creation of a stayback.

Stabilization paper - Paper for typesetting and PMTs that begins deteriorating a few weeks after use.

Staging - See stopping out.

Stamping - Can be cutting, embossing, forging, etc.

Stat camera - Small process camera.

Stat - General term for inexpensive photographic print of line copy or halftone.

Static neutralizer - In printing presses, an attachment designed to remove the static electricity from the paper to avoid ink set-off and trouble with feeding the paper.

Stationery - Letterhead, envelopes, cards, and other printed materials for business correspondence.

Statistical Process Control (SPC) - Regulation of a process through the use of statistical analysis to improve the consistency of a product or service.

Steel rule die - A cutting die made from steel cutting rule which is inserted into wooden board forms.

Stencil - Piece of fabric or film carrying image for screen printing or mimeograph.

Step-and-repeat - In photomechanics, the procedure of multiple exposure using the same image by stepping it in position according to a predetermined layout or program.

Stet - A proofreader's mark, written in the margin, signifying that copy marked for corrections should remain as it was.

Stiffness - Elongation corresponding to the point of a rupture. Also called strain.

Stipple - A repairing technique where dot pattern is created by hand method using a needle point on film or plates.

Stitch bind - To bind with wire staples

Stochastic screening - A digital screening process that converts images into very small dots (14-40 microns) of equal size and variable spacing. Second order screened images have variable size dots and variable spacing. Also called Frequency Modulated (FM) screening.

Stock - Paper or other material to be printed.

Stock photo - Photograph in a collection maintained for commercial purposes.

Stopping out - In photomechanics, application of opaque to photographic negatives; applications of special lacquer to protect areas in positives in dot etching; staging of halftone plates during relief etching: protecting certain areas of deep-etched plates so that no ink will be deposited on the protected areas.

Stream feeder - In printing process, a type of feeder that feeds several sheets overlapping each other toward the grippers. Also die cutting presses.

Strike sheet - See overlay.

Strike-on composition - Type set by a direct-impression method, or on typewriter composing machines. Also known as cold-type.

Strike-through - See show-through.

Stripper - Person who strips negatives.

Stripping - In offset lithography, the positioning of negatives (or positives) on a flat to compose a page or layout for platemaking.

Stripping die - A two piece to mechanically remove scrap from a die cut sheet.

Sub weight - Short for substance weight.

Substance - The weight in pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to the standard size (17x 22) for business papers (bond, ledger, mimeograph, duplicator and manifold). e.g. 20 pounds. Similar to basis weight of other grades of paper.

Substance weight - A term of basis weight when referring to bond papers.

Substrate - The base material which is coated or printed. Paper, films, and foils are common substrates.

Sulphate pulp - Paper pulp made from wood chips cooked under pressure in a solution of caustic soda and sodium sulphide. Known as kraft.

Supercalendar - In papermaking, a calendar stack, separate from the papermaking machine, with alternate metal and resilient rolls, used to produce a high finish on paper.

Surfaces, die-cutting - Those plates against which the die edge comes in contact after passing through the material. Can be steel, urethane, wood, etc.

Surprint - In photomechanics, exposure from a second negative super-imposed upon a previously exposed image of the first negative.

Swatch - A sample of color to be matched such as a piece of merchandise, ink sample, wash color sample, etc.

Swatch book - Book with small samples of paper or ink colors.

Swing arm press - Such as clicker. Arm extends from rear.

Swing arm side press - Swinging arms extend from the side.

Synergistic Display Program - A comprehensive, color-coordinated, program that incorporates boxes, bags, tissue paper, ribbon, bows and finishing touches to creatively display your company’s name, logo and promotional colors.

Synthetic paper - Plastic or other petroleum-based paper.

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