Graphic Arts Industry Glossary
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Galley - A shallow metal tray used to hold type.

Galley proof - A proof taken of type standing in a galley, before being made up into pages.

Gamma - A measure of contrast in photographic images.

Gang Printing - The running of any number of different jobs on the same sheet. After printing, the sheet is cut and the cost is pro-rated.

Gang - To reproduce two or more printed pieces or multiple copies of the same piece simultaneously on one sheet of paper. Also, to halftone or separate more than one image in only one exposure.

Gapping - When two layers or more of material become separated from each other causing an opening or openings.

Gatefold - In folding, a four-page insert or configuration of foldout. A large page is folded with two parallel folds to produce a center spread revealed by opening two folded flaps.

Gather - To assemble signatures into the proper sequence for binding.

GBC binding - General Binding Corporation trade name for plastic comb binding.

Gear streaks - In printing, parallel streaks appearing across the printed sheet at same interval as gear teeth on the cylinder.

Generation - A first generation image is the original; second generation is made from the original; third generation is made from the second generation. Print on this page is fourth generation: type (first), negative (second), plate (third), print (fourth).

Ghost bars - A quality control method used to reduce ghosted image created by heat or chemical contamination.

Ghost halftone -Halftone that has been screened to produce a very faint image.

Ghosting - A faint printed image that appears on a printed sheet where it was not intended. More often than not this problem is a function of graphical design. It is hard to tell when or where ghosting will occur. Sometimes you can see the problem developing immediately after printing the sheet, other times the problem occurs while drying. However the problem occurs it is costly to fix, if it can be fixed. Occasionally it can be eliminated by changing the color sequence, the inks, the paper, changing to a press with a drier, printing the problem area in a separate pass through the press or changing the racking (reducing the number of sheets on the drying racks). Since it is a function of graphical design, the buyer pays for the increased cost.

Gigabyte (GB) - One billion bytes.

Glassine Pad - A semi-clear plastic pad.

Gloss meter - An instrument used to measure the gloss intensity of a surface.

Gloss - Characteristic of paper, ink, or varnish that reflects relatively large amounts of light.

Glossy - Photographic print made on glossy paper.

Glue joint - Area where an adhesive joins two parts of a carton.

Glueability - Carton integrity evaluated in terms of glue joint strength.

Goldenrod Paper - In offset lithography, a specially coated masking paper of yellow or orange color used by strippers to assemble and position negatives for exposure onto plates.

Goldenrod - Alternate term for Flat.

Grade - One of seven major categories of paper: bond, uncoated book, coated book, text, cover, board, and specialty.

Grain long or grain short - Paper whose fibers parallel the long or short dimension of the sheet.

Grain - The direction in which most fibers lie in a sheet of paper. The direction of the grain is important for strength and fold quality. A sheet folded with the grain folds easily. in photography, crystals that make up emulsion on film.

Graining - In lithography, subjecting the surface of metal plates to the action of abrasives. Greater water-retention and adhesion of coating is imparted to an otherwise non-porous surface.

Graphic arts film - Film whose emulsion responds to light on an all-or-nothing principle to yield high contrast images.

Graphic arts magnifier - Lens, mounted in a small stand, used to inspect copy, negatives, and printing.

Graphic arts - The crafts, industries, and professions related to designing and printing messages.

Graphic designer - Professional who conceives of the design for, plans how to produce, and may coordinate production of a printed piece.

Graphics - Art and other visual elements used to make messages more clear.

Gravure - A printing method based on intaglio printing, in which the image area is etched below the surface of the printing place. The gravure plate or cylinder is immersed in ink and then wiped clean with a doctor blade, leaving ink only in the etched areas. There are two basic gravure presses - rotogravure, which prints from cylinders onto a web of paper; and sheet-fed, which prints from flat plates curved around the cylinder of the press onto individual sheets.

Gray balance - The dot values or densities of cyan, magenta and yellow that produce a neutral gray.

Gray level - The number of gray values that can be distinguished by a color separation filter–usually 2? or 256.

Gray scale - A strip of standard gray tones, ranging from white to black, placed at the side of original copy during photography to measure tonal range and contrast (gamma) obtained.

Grind - A relative measurement of particle size in inks to determine coarse or undispersed pigment.

Gripper edge - The leading edge of paper as it passes through a printing press. Also, the front edge of a lithographic or wrap-around plate that is secured to front clamp of plate cylinder.

Gripper Margin - Unprintable blank edge of paper on which grippers bear, usually 1/2 or less.

Gripper - A row of clips that hold the paper as it travels through the press. Leaving “gripper space” requires that an area of the paper (approximately 3/8”) not be printed along the leading edge in a sheet-fed press.

Grommet - A metal or plastic ring used to reinforce holes.

Groundwood paper - Newsprint and other inexpensive papers made from pulp created by grinding wood mechanically.

Groundwood Pulp - A mechanically-prepared wood pulp used in the manufacture of newsprint and publication papers.

Gum arabic - In offset lithography, used in platemaking and on press to desensitize the non-printing areas of plates.

Gumming - In platemaking, the process of applying a thin coating of gum to the non-printing areas of a lithographic plate.

Gusset - Expandable portion of a bag, file folder, or envelope.

Gutter - The blank space or inner margin, from printing area to binding.

Gutter margin - The margin space available along the binding edge.

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