Graphic Arts Industry Glossary
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F Stops - Fixed sizes for setting lens apertures.

Fabricator Converter - One who modifies products to enhance their value and final usage.

Face - The printing surface is a piece of type.

Facsimile - The exact reproduction of a letter, document or signature. Sometime abbreviated as "facsim" or "fax".

Fadeometer - An instrument used to measure the fading properties of inks and other pigmented coatings.

Fake duotone - Halftone in one ink color printed over screen tint of a second ink color.

Fanout - In printing, distortion of paper on the press due to waviness in the paper caused by absorption of moisture at the edges of the paper, particularly across the grain.

Fast film - Film that requires relatively little light to record an image.

Feeder - In printing presses, the section that separates the sheets and feeds them in position for printing.

Felt side - The smoother side of the paper for printing. The top side of the sheet in paper manufacturing.

Fibreboard - The general term applied to fabricated material used in container manufacture. May be of either corrugated or solid construction.

Filler - A substance added to the pulp stock to occupy the spaces between fibers.

Film - A photographic emulsion coated on a flexible translucent or transparent plastic base.

Film coat - Paper with a very thin coating.

Film gauge - A number indicative of the thickness of films.

Film laminate - Thin sheet of plastic adhered to printed paper for protection.

Film processor - Photographic developer machine which also fixes, rinses, and dries line and halftone film.

Film rip - See Rip film.

Filter - Colored glass or gelatin used to reduce or eliminate specific colors from light before it strikes film or paper.

Final count - Number of printed pieces delivered and charged for.

Fine screen - Screen with ruling of more than 150 lines per inch.

Finish size - Size of printed product after production is complete.

Finish, dry - A finish on paper or paperboard that has not been dampened or steamed before going through the calender rolls.

Finish, matte - A dull finish; flat.

Finish, satin - A type of dull finish, somewhat finer and glossier than matte.

Finish, supercalender - A smooth high finish applied to paper by running it through a calender stack, providing a better printing surface, finer than a calender finish.

Finish - A general term for the surface characteristics of paper or board. The finish of a surface may affect its printability. Coated papers are generally available with either a matte, dull or gloss surface. Uncoated papers are available in a wider variety of finishes, for example: Felt is a finish that simulates the soft surface appearance of felt fabric; Groove is a textured finish with shallow or parallel grooves; Laid is a traditional paper finish with a translucent pattern of lines running both parallel to and across the grain; Linen is a finish that simulates the texture of linen fabric; and Vellum is the most popular finish for uncoated paper and is a smooth finish with a few irregularities.

Finishing - Any of a variety of processes performed to document or publication after printing. Finishing can include cutting, trimming, folding and binding, as well as decorative operations as embossing, foil stamping, and laminating.

Finnish dieboards - Die lumber from Finland-usually die birch.

Fish Eyes - Small but visual deformations on the PSA surface caused by the air entrapment between the PSA and the material it is coated on. This is necessarily a quality defect and usually diminishes over time.

Fitting rule - Process of fabricating the rule, length, shape, etc. into the die.

Fixer - A chemical solution which removes the unexposed silver salts in an emulsion without affecting the metallic silver which has been deposited by the developer. This renders the photographic image permanent.

Fixing - Chemical action following development to remove unexposed silver halide, to make the image stable and insensitive to further exposure.

Flash exposure - In halftone photography, the supplementary exposure given to strengthen the dots in the shadow areas of negatives.

Flash point - The lowest temperature at which a substance can be ignited under standard test conditions.

Flat back - A book that is at right angles with the sides; opposed to the usual round back.

Flat Color - Generally refers to solid colors or tints rather than process colors.

Flat die - Fabricated flat for cutting of flat materials on reciprocating presses (flat).

Flat etching - The chemical reduction of the silver deposit in a continuous-tone of halftone plate, brought about by placing it in a tray containing an etching solution.

Flat - in photography, characteristic of an image that lacks contrast. In printing, an assembly of negatives taped to masking material and ready for platemaking.

Flex die - This die type is an outgrowth of steel rule. However, it utilizes the making processes of forged dies and, in conjunction with modern hydraulic presses, is taking over much of the work done previously only by forged dies. Diemakers can attain a good degree of skill within a short time. The basic die material is totally prefinished and needs only bending and welding to finished form. This die type is known also as swedish die, light-weight die and cutting rule die. Many of the misnomers attached to forged dies are also attached to the type.

Flex die steel - Pre-sharpened edge hardened die steel that can be cold formed. Generally 6-8 point thickness.

Flexographic printing - Printing from a raised surface, generally rubber plates. Limited to line, solid, or Ben Day printing. Rotary type printing using a very fluid solvent or aqua ink. This was formerly called the aniline process.

Flexography - A method of direct rotary printing using resilient raised image printing plates, affixed to variable repeat plate cylinders, inked by a roll or doctor-blade-wiped engraved metal roll, carrying fluid or paste-type inks to virtually any substrate.

Flood - To cover a printed page with ink, varnish, or plastic coating.

Flop - To reproduce a photograph or illustration so that its image faces opposite from the original.

Flow - The property of a coating to level out as it is applied.

Fluidity - The ability of material to flow. The ease of flow of a material. In terms of viscosity; the greater the viscosity the less the fluidity.

Flush - The lining up of image or copy to the left or right with another image or copy.

Flush cover - A cover that has been trimmed the same size as the inside text pages.

Flush left (or right) - In composition, type set to line up at the left (or right).

Flush paragraph - A paragraph with no indentation.

Flute - The wave-shaped formation of the center component of corrugated fibreboard. Flutes most commonly used are the A-flute (approx. 36 flutes per lineal foot); B-flute (approx. 51 flutes per lineal foot); and C-flute (approx. 42 flutes per lineal foot). The less common E-flute has 90 flutes per lineal foot.

Flying paster - In web printing, an automatic pasting device that splices a new web of paper onto an expiring roll, without stopping the press.

Fog - In photography, density in the non-image areas.

Fogging/Ghosting - A fog or haze-like deposit from a PSA to another substrate visible after removal of PSA.

Foil Embossing - A finishing operation combining embossing (the stamping or pressing of images or pattern onto a substrate) with foil stamping (the application of a layer of foil in a particular design or pattern to a substrate).

Foil Stamping - The use of a thin sheet of metal, plastic or other material (clear or opaque) which is “stamped” onto the paper surface. Foil stamping can be combined with embossing or debossing.

Foil - A metallic or pigmented coating on plastic sheets or rolls used in foil stamping and foil embossing.

Fold Sewn - When the signatures are sewn through their folds, each signature attached to the next.

Folded Handles - Flat paper handles that fold down onto the top of a bag.

Folding - An operation performed - commonly after printing and cutting - to fold a press sheet into a signature, map, pamphlet, etc...

Folding Carton - A container of varying size and shape made from bending grades of paperboard or small flute corrugated board, which is typically printed, cut and creased, folded and glued, and delivered flat to the customer, where it is filled with the product for distribution to retail outlets.

Folio - The printing term for pagination: the system of numbering pages.

Font - In composition, a complete assortment of letters, numbers, punctuation marks, etc. of a given size and design.

Foot - The bottom of a page, book or column.

Fore edge - The front or outer edge of a book.

Forged die - A cutting die made from steel which is heat-treated, welded, ground and filed in proper dimensions of the parts it is to cut.

Form - In offset, the assembly of pages and other images for printing. In letterpress, type and other matter locked in a chase for printing.

Form rollers - The rollers, either inking or dampening, which directly contact the plate on a printing press.

Form - One side of a press sheet.

Format - The size, style, type page, margins, printing requirements, etc., of a printed piece.

Formula pricing - Printing prices based on standard papers, formats, ink colors, and quantities.

Fountain Roller - On a printing press, the roller that revolves in the ink fountain and meters out the proper amount of ink to the distributing rollers.

Fountain solution - In lithography, a solution of water, a natural or synthetic gum and other chemicals used to dampen the plate and keep non-printing area from accepting ink.

Fountain - Reservoir for ink or water on a press.

Four-Color process - Printing process in which all colors may be produced by using primary colors, magenta, yellow and cyan, with the addition of black.

Fourdrinier - A machine to make paper, particularly Kraft paper.

FPM - Abbreviation for feet per minute; a measure of surface speed.

Free sheet - Paper made from cooked wood fibers mixed with chemicals and washed free of impurities.

French fold - Two folds at right angles to each other.

Fugitive Glue - Glue produced that lack permanence; temporary removable glue.

Fullbleed - Image printing beyond the trim marks _ " on all sides.

Fully saturated - Photographer term for rich color.

Furnish - The mixture of various materials that are blended in a stock solution from which paperboard is made.

Furniture - In lockup, wood or metal blocks used to fill the blank spaces in a form.

Fuzz - Fibers projecting from the surface of a sheet of paper.