Graphic Arts Industry Glossary
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C print - Color photographic print made from a negative on Kodak C Print paper.

C1S - Paper coated on one side.

C2S - Paper coated on both sides.

CAD/CAM - An acronym for Computer Assisted Design/Computer Assisted Makeup or Manufacturing.

Cady tester - A machine used to test the bursting strength of paper, paperboard or fibreboard. (See mullen and bursting strength)

Calender rolls - A set or stack or horizontal cast-iron rolls at the end of a paper machine. The paper is passed between the rolls to increase the smoothness and gloss of its surface.

Calendered paper - Paper with a smooth finish produced by its being passed through the calender of a papermaking machine.

Calendering - The process of finishing a sheet of dry paper by pressing it between a set of chilled metal rollers, generally at the end of a papermaking machine. The paper passes through these rollers to increase the smoothness and gloss of its surface.

Caliper - The thickness of a single sheet of paper (or plastic) under specific conditions. The measurement is made with a micrometer, expressed in thousandths of an inch (mils or points).

Camera service - Business using a process camera to make PMTS, halftone negatives, printing plates, etc.

Camera-ready - Copy which is ready for photography.

Camera-ready artwork - Artwork (an image or text) ready for photography.

Camera-ready copy - Mechanicals, photographs, and art fully prepared to be photographed for platemaking according to the technical requirements of either quick or commercial printing.

Caps and small caps - Two sizes of capital letters made in one size of type, commonly used in most roman type faces.

Carbonless - Pressure sensitive writing paper that does not use carbon.

Cardboard - General term for stiff, bulky paper such as index, tag, or bristol.

Carload - A truck load of paper weighing 40,000 pounds.

Carrier - Double-coated tapes have a thin "carrier" of film to which one or two types of PSA adhesive is coated to each side.

Carton - Folding paper box.

Case - In bookbinding, the covers of a hard-bound book.

Case bind - To bind by gluing signatures to a case made of binder's board covered with fabric, plastic, or leather, yielding hard cover books.

Casing-in - The process of putting a volume that has received all of the binding or rebinding operations, into its cover or case.

Cast coated - Coated paper dried under pressure against a polished cylinder to produce a high-gloss enamel finish.

Catalyst - A substance which alters (initiates or accelerates) the velocity of a reaction between two or more substances without changing itself in chemical composition.

Catching up - In lithography, a term which indicates that the non-image areas of a press plate are taking ink or scumming.

Caustic - Alkaline having a corrosive action.

CCD - Acronym for Charge Couple Device. An electronic scanning device used in imaging systems.

CD-ROM - Acronym for Compact Disc-Read-Only Memory. A CD-ROM drive uses the CD format as a computer storage medium.

Cell - In gravure printing, the small etched depression (representing one halftone dot) in the surface of the gravure cylinder that carries the ink.

Center marks - Lines on a mechanical, negative, plate, or press sheet indicating the center of a layout.

Center spread - The two center pages of a signature.

CEPS - Abbreviation for color electronic prepress systems, a high-end, computer-based system that is used to color correct scanned images and assemble image elements into final pages.

Chalking - In printing, a term which refers to improper drying of ink. Pigment dusts off because the vehicle has been absorbed too rapidly into the paper.

Character generation - The production of typographic images using font master data. Generated to screens or output devices.

Chase - A rectangular metal frame in which type and plates are locked up for letterpress. A metal frame holds a block type die together under pressure.

Checking - A defect resulting from excessive decurling.

Chemical pulp - In papermaking, treatment of ground wood chips with chemicals to remove impurities such as lignin, resins and gums. There are two types, sulfite and sulfate.

Chemistry - In photography and platemaking, a term used to describe the composition of processing solutions.

Child Proof Stitches - A method of stitches in which they are turned in down the center spread.

Chipboard - Paperboard used in making rigid boxes. Made in varying densities according to desired smoothness from reclaimed paper fibre to give high stiffness and internal strength for scoring.

Chokes and spreads - Overlap of overprinting images to avoid color or white fringes or borders around image detail. Called trapping in digital imaging systems.

Chopper knives - Steel rule in a die to cut up scrap in smaller pieces.

Choppers - Cutting rule in dies for the purpose of cutting the waste into smaller pieces to facilitate self-stripping and to make smaller pieces of waste to accommodate the waste removal system.

Chroma - The optical measurement of color saturation and/or intensity.

Chromalin proof - A 4-color proofing system. It is made with four process color toners, plus layers of photo polymer. Laminated into 1 piece, Chromalin is a DuPont trade name.

Chrome - Alternate term for Transparency.

Circular screen - A circular-shaped halftone screen which enables the camera operator to obtain halftones without disturbing the copy.

Clarification - The removal of suspended solids by settling process solutions.

Clay coated box board - A one side coated board (white) with good fold and scoring quality used for rigid and folding boxes. Coating provides satisfactory printing surface, a smooth flexible sheet for good bend at score line.

Cleat bind - Alternate term for Side stitch.

Clicker block - Anvil surface of wood to cut against.

Clicker pad - Disposable anvil surface of various materials.

Clicker press - Generic term now referring to all swing arm diecutting presses used in much of the soft goods converting areas.

Cling - Tendency of adjacent materials to adhere to each other, as in blocking, except that the surfaces can be separated without any visible damage. A slight noise, referred as kiss noise, may occur upon separation.

Clip art - High-contrast drawings printed on white, glossy paper and made to be cut out and pasted to a mechanical.

Clip Seal / Wafer Seal -

Closed loop system - In printing, a completely automatic control system.

Closed time - Time the glue joint is under compression while the adhesive is setting.

CMYK - Acronym for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black–subtractive primary colors. Printing colors for process color reproduction.

Coarse screen - Screen with ruling of less than 133 lines per inch.

Coated Paper - Paper with a surface treated with clay or some other pigment and adhesive material to improve the surface in terms of printing quality. The coated finish may be dull, matte or gloss. Coated papers are generally available in white or natural (off-white).

Coating - In platemaking, the light-sensitive polymer or mixture applied to a metal plate. In printing, an emulsion, varnish or lacquer over a printed surface to protect it.

Coating, heat seal - A coating applied to a substrate capable of sealing to another material by heat and dwell time.

Coating, thermoplastic - A material applied to a substrate which is heat sealable.

Cobb test - A method of measuring the water receptivity of sized paperboard by determining the weight of liquid absorbed into the surface over a specified period of time.

Cockling - A rippling effect given to the surface of a sheet of paper which has not been properly dried. Moisture pickup of the sheet can also cause the cockling or wavy edge.

Cohesion - The attractive force that internally binds a material.

Cold color - In printing, a color with a bluish cast.

Cold set adhesive - A liquid adhesive, used in carton forming, which when applied dewaters through the substrate, dries, and bonds to the substrate.

Collate - A finishing term for gathering paper in a precise order.

Collateral - Ad agency term for printed pieces, such as brochures and annual reports, that are not directly involved in advertising.

Collating Marks - In printing, a set of numbered symbols that are printed on the folded edge of press signatures as a means of indicating the proper collating or gathering sequence.

Collation - Gathering of individual tabs into sequentially ordered sets.

Collotype - Method of printing continuous tones using a plate coated with gelatin.

Color balance - The correct combination of cyan, magenta and yellow to (1) reproduce a photograph without a color cast, (2) produce a neutral gray, or (3) reproduce the colors in the original scene or object.

Color bar - A series of solid rectangles on a film which are shot on each plate. These are used to set and control ink densities on press.

Color break - In multicolor printing, the point or line at which one ink color stops and another begins.

Color Control Bars - A film test printed or exposed onto a film or substrate to produce an assortment of measurable color and gray patches that are used to measure and control the printing process.

Color correct - To retouch or enhance color separation negatives.

Color correction - The process, in four-color separations, of adjusting the color values to achieve a more pleasing or accurate image.

Color density - Optical density (or hue saturation) of a particular color.

Color filter - A sheet of dyed glass, gelatin or plastic, or dyed gelatin cemented between glass plates, used in photography to absorb certain colors and transmit others. The filters used for color separation are blue, green and red.

Color Key - 3M trade name for overlay color proof.

Color Matching Systems - A method of specifying a specific, standard color by means of numbered color samples available in swatchbooks. Pantone and Toyo are two commonly used color matching systems.

Color process - Alternate term for 4-color process printing.

Color proofs - See off-press proofs, progressive proofs.

Color separations - The process of preparing artwork, photographs, transparencies, or computer generated art for printing by separating into the four primary printing colors.

Color swatch - Sample of an ink color.

Color transparency - A full-color photographic positive on transparent film. Also called a chrome.

Color wheel - Diagrammatic arrangement of primary and secondary colors used as a visual aid in determining relationship and harmony among colors.

Coloured stitches - Coloured stitching is a stitch with coloured wire.

Comb bind - To bind by inserting teeth of a flexible plastic comb through holes in a stack of paper.

Combination jig/block die - Contains both jigsawed areas and block sawed.

Combination plate - In photoengraving, halftone and line work combined on one plate; etched for both halftones and line depth.

Commercial artist - Artist whose work is planned for reproduction by printing.

Commercial register - Color printing on which the misregister allowable is within ± one row of dots.

Common impression cylinder press - In flexography, letter-press and lithography, a press with a number of printing units around a large impression cylinder.

Comp - Short for Comprehensive dummy.

Composite - A single negative made from a series of exposures on 1 piece of film.

Composite film - Graphic arts negative made by combining two or more images.

Composite proof - Proof of color separations in position with graphics and type.

Comprehensive dummy - A detailed dummy or sketch of a design, intended to give a client or the printer a clear sense of how the finished publication will or should look when reproduced. Desktop publishing systems can easily create comps using low-resolution black and white or color printers. Every job submitted for printing must be accompanied with a color-broken comprehensive clearly indicating color breaks.

Computerized composition - Unjustified type is produced on a keyboard and subsequently run through a computer which makes line-end, hyphenation and other typographical decisions. Sometimes, a computer-produced second tape is then used as input for photosetting (or linecasting) equipment.

Condensed type - A narrow or slender type face.

Conditioning - Exposure of paperboard to accurately controlled and specified atmospheric conditions, so that its moisture content reaches equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere.

Conductivity - A property of fountain solutions that must be controlled along with pH.

Conglomerate die - A die utilizing more than one die type in it to allow for greater wear resistance, etc. at a given point. This die type is usually employed in the plastics trades for trimming contoured, vacuum-formed parts.

Consignment memo - Alternate term for photographer's Delivery memo.

Consistency - Property of a material which is evidenced by its resistance to flow. The general body characteristics of an ink, for example, viscosity; uniformity mostly used to describe the rheological property of an ink, such as "thick", "thin" and "buttery". In paper making, percentage, by weight, of fiber in pulp slurry.

Contact - A photographic conversion of a positive to a negative or vice versa.

Contact print - A photographic print made from a negative or positive in contact with sensitized paper, film or printing plate.

Contact screen - A halftone screen on film having a dot structure of graded density, used in vacuum contact with the photographic film to produce halftone.

Contact sheet - Alternate term for Proof sheet.

Containerboard - The fabricated material from which containers are manufactured. A general term applied both to solid fibreboard and corrugated fibreboard.

Continuous-tone copy - Illustrations, photographs or computer files that contain gradient tones from black to white or light to dark.

Contract Proof - A color proof that represents an agreement between the printer and the client regarding exactly how the printed product will appear.

Contrast - The tonal graduation between the highlights, middle tones and shadows in an original or reproduction.

Converter - Business that combines printed sheets with other materials to make boxes, displays, etc.

Copolymer - Polymer produced from a combination of two or more monomers. See Polymer.

Copy - Any furnished material (typewritten manuscript, pictures, artwork, etc..) to be used in the production of printing.

Copy preparation - In typesetting, marking up manuscript and specifying type. In pasteup and printing, making mechanicals and writing instructions to ensure proper placement and handling of copy.

Copyboard - A frame that holds original copy while it is being photographed on the camera.

Copyfitting - In composition, the calculation of how much space a given amount of copy will take up in a given size and typeface. Also, the adjusting of the type size to make it fit in a given amount of space.

Copyright - Ownership of creative work by the writer, photographer, or artist who made it.

Copywriter - Person who writes copy for advertising.

Corner marks - Lines on a mechanical, negative, plate, or press sheet showing the corners of a page or finished piece.

Corrosion - Deterioration of a material by chemical action, usually as a result of galvanic, acid or alkali action of oxidation.

Corrugated board, double wall - A container board consisting of two fluted members and three liners combined in the following sequence: facing (liner), fluted member, center liner, fluted member, facing (liner).

Corrugated board, double-faced - A container board consisting of a fluted inner member glued between two facings or liners. Used in making corrugated fibreboard boxes and products.

Corrugated board, single-faced - A container board consisting of a fluted member glued to one facing permitting free bending in one direction. Used for wrapping and cushioning.

Corrugated medium - The container board, usually .009 inch thick, used as the fluted member of corrugated fibreboard.

Corrugated - Characteristic of board for boxes made by sandwiching fluted kraft paper between sheets of paper or cardboard.

Cotton content paper - Paper made from cotton fibers rather than wood pulp.

Counter - The press board or other kind of cardboard that is glued into the outside of the jacket into which scores are cut.

Cover paper - A general term applied to a great variety of papers used for the outside covers of catalogs, brochures, booklets, and similar pieces.

Crash number - Numbering paper by pressing an image on the first sheet which is transferred to all parts of the printed set.

Crash printing - Letterpress printing on carbon or carbonless forms so image prints simultaneously on all sheets in the set.

Crawling - That property of a coating or ink in which the wetting of the surface is very poor, causing the film to contract into drops, leaving a discontinuous covering.

Creasibility - Physical property paperboard that allows a carton to be folded along the score or crease line.

Creasing rules - The rules that crease the sheet. They may be of varying widths to best suit the thickness of the stock being creased.

Creasing -

Creep - In offset, the forward movement of a blanket during printing. Can also apply to the movement of the packing under the plate or blanket during printing.

Crimping - Puncture marks holding business forms together.

Crinkle - Wrinkly/wad film severely to determine ink flexibility.

Cromalin - DuPont trade name for integral color proof.

Crop - To eliminate portions of the copy, usually on a photograph or plate, indicated on the originals by cropmarks.

Crop marks - Printed lines showing where to trim a printed sheet.

Cross direction - In paper, the direction across the grain. Paper is weaker and more sensitive to changes in relative humidity in the cross direction than the grain direction.

Crossline screen (glass screen) - In halftone photography, a grid pattern with opaque lines crossing each other at right angles, thus forming transparent squares or "screen apertures".

Crosslinkers - Additive used to complete a chemical reaction; used in paperboard, also with coatings, ink, etc.

Crossmarks - See register marks.

Crossover - Two page spread where image crosses over both pages.

Crystallization - A condition in which a dried ink film repels a subsequent ink or coating which must be printed on to it. This word has an entirely different meaning in chemistry.

CTP - Acronym for computer-to-plate.

Curl - The tendency of a sheet of paper to roll into the form of a cylinder. It is caused by the inequality in water content or stress levels between the two sides of the paper. Wet Curl is the result of application of water to the paper surface, as in lithographic printing. Atmospheric (Dry) Curl is the result of the exchange of water vapor between paper and air of higher or lower relative humidity. Mechanical Curl is the result of mechanical stresses on the paper, other than that of swelling or shrinkage, due to moisture.

Curtain coater - A machine that creates a vertical "curtain" of liquid coating material. A constant stream that falls from a coating head. Board passing under the curtain will be covered by the coating. The amount of coating to be applied is regulated by the thickness of the curtain and speed at which the board passes through it.

Curved die boards - Used for rotary dies, usually hard-wood plywood.

Curved plate - In letterpress, an electrotype or stereotype which is precurved to fit the cylinder of a rotary press.

Curved rotary rule - Used vertically on a curved die board cutting corrugated. Furnished 45° or 90°, relative to shaft center lines.

Custom Embroidery - See Embroidery.

Cut - In letterpress, a photoengraving of any kind. Number of tab positions in a bank (example - 1/5 cut = 5 tabs of equal size completing a bank.

Cut creaser - A machine used in production of folding cartons. It uses steel rule dies with sharp knives to cut through the board: dull knives to crease board along fold lines.

Cut flush - The cover is trimmed after binding so that its edges are even with the edges of the leaves.

Cut stock - Paper distributor term for paper 11 x 17 or smaller.

Cut-AWL saw - A commercial machine that is commonly used in the production of rotary dies. A curved base is used in this application.

Cutoff - The circumference of the impression cylinder of a web press, therefore also the length of the sheet the press will cut from the roll of paper.

Cutscore - In die-cutting, a sharp-edged knife, usually several thousandths of an inch lower than the cutting rules in a die, made to cut part way into the paper or board for folding purposes. Cutting knives or rule that cut only partially through the stock for purposes of bending. Used only where creases are not desired.

Cutter - A term used to describe a bench tool used to cut steel rule.

Cutting die - Term covering total family of numerous types of "cutting dies".

Cutting head - Generic form of numerous definitions.

Cutting knives - The sharp, steel rule that cuts the sheets of material. This rule is usually hardened, whereas a softer rule is needed for curves.

Cutting scores - Cutting the scores in the counter into which the creasing rules must register to make the proper creases for folding.

CWT - Paper distributor abbreviation for 100 pounds.

Cyan - Hue of a subtractive primary and a 4-color process ink. It reflects or transmits blue and green light and absorbs red light.

Cylinder - In flexography, for no particular reason, most rollers in the printing presses are called rolls with the exception of that upon which the rubber plates are mounted, and the one which receives the impression, and these are usually referred to as cylinders, e.g.: plate cylinders or impression cylinder.

Cylinder gap - In printing presses, the gap or space in the cylinders of a press where the mechanism for plate (or blanket), clamps and gripper (sheetfed) is housed.

Cylinder liner - Container board made on cylinder machines from blends of virgin pulp and paper fibers reworked from various grades of paper stock. The sheet is formed on a series of rotating cylinders.

Cylinder press - A rotary printing press utilizing curved plates.