Graphic Arts Industry Glossary
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Back edge- The left-hand edge of a recto, or right hand edge of a verso. This is normally the binding edge.

Back lining - A paper or fabric adhering to the backbone or spine in a hard cover book.

Back Split - Process where the fabricator slits the release liner for easy removal from the PSA by hand.

Back up - To print on the second side of a sheet already printed on one side. Such printing is called a backup.

Backbone - The exposed part of a bound volume when shelved. Also called spine and shelf back.

Backing roll - Cylinder used to support the web as a process is being applied to the opposite side. Some processes are: brush polishing, coating, and calendering.

Backing up - Printing the reverse side of a sheet already printed on one side.

Backtrapping - See Piling.

Bad break - In composition, the setting of a hyphenated line as the first line of a page. Also, starting a page with a "widow".

Baloney Slitting - The common method of slitting pressure sensitive tapes, producing rolls per step or per cycle. Also referred to as lathe slitting, lever or single-knife cutting. This process features quick-setup and economical per-slit cost.

Baltic die boards - Die lumber, usually birch, from the area of the Baltic Sea.

Banding - Method of packaging printed pieces using paper, rubber, or fiberglass bands.

Bank - One successive row of staggered tabs from first to last position.

Barrier coating - A coating film that prevents or limits the passage of substances such as: oil, grease, water, or oxygen.

Base - Often used in referring to a full strength ink or toner. Generally refers to the major ingredient used in a clear lacquer, varnish or ink. May refer to either the solvent or binder system. A cylinder before it is engraved. Base film before addition of coating.

Base negative - Negative made from copy pasted to mounting board, not overlays.

Basic size - The one standard size of each grade of paper used to calculate basis weight.

Basis Weight - Weight in pounds of 500 sheets (a ream) of paper cut to a given standard size (this is called the basis size, and varies depending on the grade of paper).

Baud rate - Number of bits of information transmitted per second from one digital device to another.

Bearers - In photoengraving, the dead metal left on a plate to protect the printing surface when molding in composition, type-high slugs locked up inside a chase to protect the printing surface when molding. In presses, the flat surfaces or rings at the ends of cylinders that come in contact with each other during printing (on American presses), and serve as a basis for smoothing out printing thickness. Also die-cutting presses.

Beater-Dyed - The process of using paper pulp, dyed to a match color, to create colored paper.

Beers Box - A pop-up style box that folds flat.

Beersplex Box - A combination of a Beers box and a simplex box construction.

Bend - Other than straight, to any degree or angle, fold, break, bend, etc.

Benday - Alternate term for Screen tint.

Bender - A bench tool used to form cutting or creasing rule.

Bending dies - Small dies that insert in a bender to produce desired shapes.

Bending rules - The process of curving the cutting rule in forming dies to the shape and dimensions desired.

Bending, Die steels - The process of curving the steel in freehand forming dies to shape dimensions desired.

Bevels - To form a sloping or slanting edge, container, part, or rules.

Bimetal plate - In lithography, a plate used for long runs in which the printing image base is usually copper and the non-printing area is aluminum, stainless steel, or chromium.

Bind - To fasten sheets or signatures and adhere covers with glue, wire, thread, or by other means.

Binder - The adhesive components of an ink, normally supplied by the resin formulation; the ink vehicle. In paper, an adhesive component used to cement inert filler, such as clay, to the sheet or to affix short fibers firmly (securely) to paper or board stock.

Binder - A book-like device used to hold a quantity of sheets, commonly loose-leaf paper. Binders can either be temporary or permanent, the former allowing the easy removal and insertation of sheets, the latter not.

Binder's board - Very stiff paper board used to make covers of case bound books.

Bindery - All work with press sheets other than the actual printing: cutting, jogging (the process of handing press sheets for form a neater, more even stack of sheets), collating, folding, and stitching.

Binding slip - A sheet of instructions sent to the bindery with each volume, specifying the binding requirements for that particular volume.

Binding - Binding and finishing are activities performed on printed material after printing.

Bit - In computers, the basic unit of digital information; contraction of Binary digit.

Bit map - In computer imaging, the electronic representative of a page, indicating the positions of every possible spot (zero or one).

Black liquor - The spent chemicals obtained from the kraft chemical pulping process.

Black Printer - The plate during the prepress printing process that is used with the cyan, magenta and yellow printers to enhance the contrast and to emphasize the neutral tones and detail in the final reproduction shadow areas.

Black-and-white - Originals or reproductions in single color, as distinguished from multicolor.

Blank - Any die cut, scored, and corner cut section of boxboard in the flat to be formed into a rigid box or part thereof. Also, a folding carton after cutting and scoring but before folding and gluing.

Blanket cylinder - Cylinder of a press on which the blanket is mounted.

Blanket - The thick rubber mat on a printing press that transfers ink from the plate to paper.

Blanking die - This die type is covered here because it employs a form of steel rule, although it is used to convert metal. Normally, the die is made of two parts: the top (female) section, of steel rule set into dense material, sometimes maple plywood; the bottom section (male), a hardened plate which mates with the inside line of the top section to form a shearing effect on the materials being cut. This die is also known as a shearing die, stamping die or metal blanking die.

Bleach manilla lined news - Clean, white top liner containing some ground wood on chipboard, news bottom liner.

Bleaching - The process of chemically treating pulp fibers to reduce or remove coloring matter so that the whiteness or brightness of the pulp is increased.

Bleed - A printed color or image that runs off the trimmed edge of the paper, achieved by printing a larger area and trimming off the excess. The bleed also refers to the area that will later be trimmed.

Blind emboss - To emboss without added ink or foil the embossed image.

Blind Embossing - Creating a relief impression (pressing artwork onto a surface) without adding ink, foil or other color. The blind emboss is visible because of the shadow it casts through a raised image, and in some cases because of a change in the surface texture of the area.

Blind image - In lithography, an image that has lost its ink receptivity and fails to print.

Blistering - A defect caused by the development of air pockets in the paperboard, caused by drying too suddenly on the drying cylinders, or poor ply adhesion in multiply board.

Block die - Series of blocks of wood that are cut on a table saw to exact sizes to conform to a pattern. The rule is inserted between these blocks and are held firm within a metal frame with wedges or quoins.

Blocking - An undesired adhesion between touching layers of material such as might occur under moderate pressure and/or temperature in storage or use; to the extent that damage to at least one surface is visible upon their separation.

Blow up - To enlarge photographically. Such an enlargement is called a blowup.

Blueline - Final proof from printer to verify graphic positioning, color breaks, pagination, and type positioning.

Blushing - A milky, foggy or flat appearance in an ink or coating due to precipitation or incompatibility of one of the ingredients. Most often caused by excessive moisture condensations.

Board - A heavy weight, thick sheet of paper or other fiber substances, usually of a thickness of .0006" or over. The distinction between board and paper is not definite.

Board Caliper - Refers to the weight of the board.

Board paper - Grade of paper commonly used for file folders, display, and post cards.

Board, cylinder - Any type of fibreboard or boxboard made on a cylinder machine. Has a characteristic grain direction.

Board - Alternate term for Mechanical.

Body - In inkmaking, a term referring to the viscosity, or consistency, of an ink (e.g., an ink with too much body is stiff).

Body Copy - Text or graphics printed other than on tab extensions (i.e. the "body" of the sheet).

Body type - A type used for the main part or text of a printed piece, as distinguished from the heading.

Bold-face type - A name given to type that is heavier than the text type with which it is used.

Bond & carbon - Business form with paper and carbon paper.

Bond paper - A grade of writing or printing paper where strengths, durability, and permanence are essential requirements; used for letterheads, business forms, etc.

Bonding - The natural chemical and physical mechanism by which individual fibers adhere to each other.

Book paper - A general term for coated and uncoated papers. The basic size is 25 x 38.

Bookbinder - Alternate term for Trade bindery.

Box - A complete paper box, including base and lid, or one piece.

Boxboard - Paperboard of sufficient caliper and test to be used in the manufacturer of paperboard boxes.

Braceless die - Varying interpretations of this term.

Break for color - In artwork and composition, to separate the parts to be printed in different colors.

Break for color - Also known as a color break. To separate mechanically or by software the parts to be printed in different colors.

Breaking strength - The ability of a material to resist rupture by tension. (See also bursting strength)

Bridge - Small areas left uncut in a jig die for purpose of holding the die together.

Bridger - A bench tool used to remove metal from the steel rule, to pass over the bridge.

Brightness - In photography, light reflected by the copy. In paper, the reflectance or brilliance of the paper.

Brilliancy - The intensity, chroma, brightness or apparent strength of a color to the eye.

Bristol - Type of board paper used for post cards, business cards, and other heavy-use products.

Brittle paper - A weakened condition of paper due to deterioration caused by acid, which may cause darkening of the paper.

Broadside - Any printed advertising circular.

Brochure - A pamphlet bound in booklet form.

Broke - Pulp recovered from paperboard trimmings, damaged paperboard, or off spec product anywhere in the manufacturing process.

Broken carton - Less than one full carton of paper.

Broker - Agent who supplies printing from many printing companies.

Bronzing - Printing with a sizing ink, then applying bronze powder while still wet to produce a metallic luster.

Brown stock - Brown pulp from the chemical pulping process.

Buckle Folder - A device used in the folding phrase of binding and finishing, which uses a set of plates (collectively called a folder plate) to force a sheet to buckle slightly, allowing it to be pulled through a set of folding rollers.

Buckling - The phenomenon when PSA tape ripples and causes an opening or gaps between layers in the manufacturing process.

Buckram - A heavy-weave cotton base fabric which is pyroxylin-filled and used for constructing covers.

Bulk pack - To pack printed pieces in boxes without prior wrapping in bundles.

Bulk - Thickness of paper, expressed in thousandths of an inch or the he number of pages per inch for a given basis weight (PPI).

Bump exposure - In photography, an exposure in halftone photography, especially with contact screens, in which the screen is removed for a short time. It increases highlight contrast and drops out the dots in the whites.

Burn - In platemaking, a common term used for a plate exposure. In photography, to give extra exposure to a specific area of a print.

Burnish - To smooth and seal by rubbing elements. adhered to a mechanical.

Burst perfect bind - To bind by forcing glue into notches in spines of signatures, and then adhering a paper cover.

Bursting strength - Resistance of paper to rupture under pressure, as indicated in pounds per square inch on a Mullen or "pop" tester.

Butt fit - Ink colors overlapped only a hairline so they appear perfectly butted.

Butt Splice - A splice made by joining tape end-to-end without a space nor any overlapping. A thin single coated tape centered on both sides usually assembles the splice.

Butt to rule - Any subject matter that is to fit directly against a printing rule.

Butt - To join without overlapping or space between.

Butt-Cutting - Die cutting process where a kiss cut is performed, but no matrix is created. The parts are directly next to each other. Products are usually square or rectangular shaped on a roll or pad.

Buyout - Subcontracted service.

Byte - In computers, a unit of digital information, equivalent to one character or 8 to 32 bits.